Page updated 4/10/2017
This group includes all classes of positions, the duties of which are to advise on, administer, supervise, or perform work pertaining to and requiring a knowledge of business and trade practices, characteristics and use of equipment, products, or property, or industrial production methods and processes, including the conduct of investigations and studies; the collection, analysis, and dissemination of information; the establishment and maintenance of contracts with industry and commerce; the provision of advisory services; the examination and appraisement of merchandise or property; and the administration of regulatory provisions and controls.
There are 98,706 federal workers employed in business and industry jobs within all Executive Branch departments, and in many large and small independent agencies with 2,333 employed overseas. The Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force employ 34,486 civilians followed by the Department of Defense with15,260 and the Department of Agriculture with 8,861.
The following information is compiled from numerous federal documents including qualification standards, job announcements, career articles, occupation flysheets, FEDSCOPE, OPM, Agency websites, interviews with federal employees, The United States Government Manual, and from the Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook.
Click the job title for job listings, the number employed, hiring agencies, and job series definitions.
These position descriptions are excerpted from the qualification standards for select job titles in this group. In the General Schedule position classification system is established under chapter 51 of title 5, United States Code. The term “General Schedule” or “GS” denotes the major position classification system and pay structure for white collar work in the Federal government. Agencies that are no longer subject to chapter 51 have replaced the GS pay plan indicator with agency-unique pay plan indicators. For example, the Bureau of Prisons uses GL instead of the GS designation. For this reason, reference to General Schedule or GS is often omitted from the individual qualification standard sheets.
A brief introduction for major occupations within this group is provided below.
This series includes positions the duties of which are to perform, supervise, or manage nonprofessional, two-grade interval work for which no other series is appropriate. The work requires analytical ability, judgment, discretion, and knowledge of a substantial body of administrative or program principles, concepts, policies, and objectives.
The federal government employs 27,166 in this group of which 814 work overseas. The Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force employ 7,797 civilians followed by the Department of Defense with 4,106 and the Department of Agriculture with 2,960. All of the cabinet level agencies and most large independent agencies employ workers in this group.
Positions classified in the General Business and Industry Series, GS-1101, involve specialized work for which no appropriate occupational series has been established. Typically, positions in this series are too few of a kind to have been recognized as separate lines of work. Some positions involve new or emerging work or, more rarely, mixtures of work that cannot be identified with an established series.
Job Series Titles: (Click on the job title to view job vacancies for government and private sector jobs.) The USAJOBS selection lists all federal job vacancies for this job series.
This series includes positions that manage, supervise, perform, or develop policies and procedures for professional work involving the procurement of supplies, services, construction, or research and development using formal advertising or negotiation procedures; the evaluation of contract price proposals; and the administration or termination and close out of contracts. The work requires knowledge of the legislation, regulations, and methods used in contracting; and knowledge of business and industry practices, sources of supply, cost factors, and requirements characteristics.
The federal government employs 36,879 in this group of which 691 work overseas. The Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force employ 16,637 civilians followed by the Department of Defense with 7,129 and the Department of Veterans Affairs with 2,761. All of the cabinet level agencies and most large independent agencies employ contracting specialists.
Job Series Titles: (Click on the job title to view job vacancies for government and private sector jobs.) The USAJOBS selection lists all federal job vacancies for this job series.
Positions in this series are concerned with:
Soliciting, evaluating, negotiating, and awarding contracts with commercial organizations, educational institutions, nonprofit organizations, and State, local or foreign governments for furnishing products, services, construction or research and development to the Federal Government
Administering contracts by assuring compliance with the terms and conditions of contracts, including resolution of problems concerning the obligations of the parties
Terminating contracts by analyzing, negotiating, and settling claims and proposals
Analyzing and evaluating cost or price proposals and accounting systems data
Planning, establishing, or reviewing contracts, programs, policies, or procedures
Formulating and administering policies and procedures to insure achievement of Federal socioeconomic goals, such as those affecting small business, labor surplus areas, and disadvantaged business firms
Developing acquisition strategies and directing or managing procurements; and
Providing staff advisory services in one or more of the specializations in this occupation
Contracting, procurement, and acquisition are terms used interchangeably to denote the process of acquiring goods and services for the Government from commercial or noncommercial sources when and where they are needed, at the most reasonable price, and in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. Basic statutes provide the foundation for the framework of Government contracting. Approximately 4,000 additional statutes address elements of the contracting process, such as the Small Business Act which prescribes rules for small business participation in the Federal procurement process, socioeconomic legislation which establishes policies for the achievement of Government socioeconomic goals, and legislation governing the procurement of various categories of items, including automatic data processing, public buildings, architectural and engineering services, and construction services.
This occupation includes positions which primarily require a knowledge of business and industrial practices, procedures, and systems for the management and control of Government-owned property. These positions involve technical work in the administration of contract provisions relating to control of Government property in the possession of contractors, from acquisition through disposition. Also included are positions that involve providing staff leadership and technical guidance over property administration matters.
The federal government employs 438 industrial property management specialists of which 12 work overseas. The Departments of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and the Department of Defense employ 371 civilians followed by the Department of Energy with 27, and NASA with 20.
Industrial property management specialists insure that contractors comply with contract requirements and procurement regulations pertaining to Government property in possession of contractors.
Individual contracts, including related agreements and understandings, together with procurement regulations, establish the requirements for control of Government property in the possession of contractors. The contractor is directly responsible and accountable for all Government property.
Government property is all property owned by or leased to the Government or acquired by the Government under the terms of a contract. Government-provided property includes both Government-furnished property and property acquired by the contractor for the performance of a contract.
Job Series Titles: (Click on the job title to view job vacancies for government and private sector jobs.) The USAJOBS selection lists all federal job vacancies for this job series.
This series includes administrative, managerial, and technical work required to redistribute, donate, sell, abandon, destroy, and promote the use of excess and surplus personal property. Employees must know: (a) characteristics, proper identities, and uses of property items; (b) merchandising and marketing methods and techniques; and/or (c) property disposal policies, programs, regulations, and procedures.
The federal government employs 751 property disposal specialist of which 63 work overseas. The Department of Defense employ 552 civilians followed by the General Services Administration with 123 and the Interior Department with 13.
Personal property consists of any movable, tangible property except real property, records of the Federal Government, and certain types of naval vessels. This includes all types of equipment, machinery, parts, tools, and metals; furniture; fuels and chemicals; vehicles and aircraft; medical supplies; weapons; publications; and clothing.
Employees in this series perform work to dispose of personal property. This includes work consisting of property utilization, donation, and/or marketing duties.
Employees may initiate actions to sell, destroy, or abandon property, instead of redistributing, based on value, type, demand, condition, or hazardous material or waste content. Hazardous material is any substance that is capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property. Hazardous waste is used hazardous material that is ignitable, corrosive, reactive, or toxic to living organisms.
Some employees inspect disposal locations to make sure Federal organizations comply with property utilization regulations. They explain and interpret regulations and procedures and encourage activities to report, use, or try to transfer their excess property.
This purchasing series includes positions that involve supervising or performing work to acquire supplies, services, and construction by purchase, rental, or lease through (a) delivery orders and/or (b) small purchase procedures. The work requires knowledge of policies and procedures for delivery orders and small purchases. This work also requires knowledge of commercial supply sources and common business practices related to sales, prices, discounts, units of measurement, deliveries, stocks, and shipments.
The federal government employs 2,989 purchasing agents of which 36 work overseas. The Veterans Administration employs 907 followed by the Department of the Navy with 476 and the Department of Agriculture with 277. All of the cabinet level agencies except for the Education Department, and most large independent agencies employ purchasing agents.
Contracting specialists acquire goods and services in amounts exceeding the small purchase threshold. They normally use sealed bidding or formal negotiation methods, such as invitations for bid (IFB) or requests for proposal (RFP). They award bilateral contracts, i.e., contracts signed by both parties.
Purchasing agents normally solicit quotes, rather than proposals, orally or through written requests for quotations (RFQ). Some purchasing agents use RFP's for small purchases when a firm offer is required or when technical factors, rather than price, are the primary consideration. Purchasing agents generally use unilateral instruments to establish contracts, i.e., purchase orders, calls against blanket purchase agreements, and credit card purchases. Some purchasing agents use bilateral purchase orders to make purchases within small purchase dollar limitations. Purchasing agents also issue delivery orders (that may exceed the small purchase threshold) against established contracts or with certain Government sources of supply.
Contracting work also differs from purchasing work in the nature and level of knowledge required. Contracting specialists typically must comply with or administer many detailed, complex statutory and regulatory requirements that apply rarely or never to small purchases and delivery orders. Contracting work usually involves non repetitive or more sophisticated requirements, more complex regulations and reviews, extensive cost/price analysis, complex negotiations over long contractual periods, and high level impact on industry.
Purchasing agents use a variety of purchasing procedures to acquire supplies, services, and construction. In this standard, "purchasing" refers to (a) open market procedures used to purchase requirements within small purchase dollar limitations, and/or (b) procedures used to place delivery orders against established contracts, such as Federal Supply Schedules and requirements contracts. For the purpose of position classification, the terms "open market" and "small purchase" are used interchangeably.
Purchasing work is governed by acquisition laws and regulations, such as the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act (FPASA) and the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR). These are supplemented by additional regulations, legal precedents, and agency policies and procedures.
This series includes positions that involve performing or supervising clerical and technical work that supports the procurement of supplies, services, and/or construction. Procurement clerks and technicians prepare, control, and review procurement documents and reports; verify or abstract information contained in documents and reports; contact vendors to get status of orders and expedite delivery; maintain various procurement files; resolve a variety of shipment, payment, or other discrepancies; or perform other similar work in support of procurement programs and operations. The work requires a practical knowledge of procurement procedures, operations, regulations, and programs.
The federal government employs 1,420 procurement clerks and technicians of which 36 work overseas. The Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force employ 491 civilians followed by the Department of Defense with 390 and the Veterans Administration with 241. All of the cabinet level agencies and many large independent agencies employ workers in this group.
Procurement clerk and technician positions are located in a variety of work situations. The work can involve one or more phases of the procurement process, or it can span the entire procurement process from the pre-award phase through the post-award phase. Some positions support agency or activity staff programs, such as contracting policy or small business offices.
This series includes positions involved in supervising or performing support work related to the utilization, donation, sale, and other disposition of excess and surplus personal property. It requires knowledge of property disposal operations and programs and the ability to apply regulations, practices, and procedures.
The federal government employs 53 industrial property disposal clerks and technicians. The Department of Defense employ 36 and a few work for other agencies.
Personal property consists of any movable, tangible property except real property, Federal Government records, and certain types of naval vessels. This includes all types of equipment, machinery, parts, tools, metals, furniture, fuels, chemicals, vehicles, aircraft, medical supplies, weapons, publications, and clothing.
After a Federal agency declares personal property excess to its needs, the property is disposed of following a standard process or series of steps. Property is (1) transferred to another Federal activity (utilization); (2) donated to a State government or eligible organization (e.g., universities or public health activities); (3) sold to the general public (marketing); or (4) abandoned or destroyed.
Property disposal clerks and technicians perform support work in one or all of the stages of the property disposal process. Employees work at property disposal holding activities supporting the disposal operations of a few Federal organizations, regional offices serving a number of Federal agencies or holding activities, or headquarters offices supporting nationwide property disposal operations.
Public utilities specialists are responsible for identifying Real Time issues that may indicate problems or unique scheduling incidents that require resolution. They use various resources to locate and identify interchange deviation and works to resolve complex issues through the analysis of the facts and data available. When there are discrepancies that can't be resolved through normal processes, the specialist independently determines additional avenues to pursue to correct and resolve the problem.
Use the Group Coverage Qualification Standard for Administrative and Management Positions for this series in conjunction with the requirements listed on the job announcement.
The federal government employs 475 public utilities specialists. The Department of Energy is the largest employer with 410, the Department of the Army employs 19 and GSA 17.
A recent job announcement for aGS-13 public utilities specialist listed the following duties:
As a Public Utilities Specialist (Analysis), you will:
This series includes positions the duties of which are to administer, supervise, or perform promotional, advisory, or analytical functions pertaining to the commercial distribution of goods and services. The work performed concerns, and requires a practical knowledge of, market structure and trends, competitive relationships, retail and wholesale trade practices, distribution channels and costs, business financing and credit practices, trade restrictions and controls, and principles of advertising and consumer motivation.
The federal government employs 744 trade specialists. The Department of Commerce is the largest employer with 629, the Department of Agriculture employs 79, and the Transportation Department employs 12.
Positions in this series are identified in two major areas of specialization, with respect to prevailing patterns of both education and experience possessed by persons performing the work, viz., Domestic Trade and International Trade.
International Trade is not distinguished from Domestic Trade simply by the requirement to know markets in different geographic areas from the standpoint of consumer demands, available products, prices, and the like. If this were true, it would be necessary to provide for specialization in a number of foreign geographic areas, since markets vary greatly from one area to another. Work in the International Trade field requires knowledge of the effect of this country's political relationships and position among world powers on its trade policies; understanding of the structure and significance of reciprocal trade arrangements, balance of payments, and the like; the problems faced by U.S. manufacturer; and exporters in competing for markets abroad; the problems of trading with highly structured or controlled economies; and a comprehensive knowledge of related programs and functions in other Federal agencies concerned with trade matters, and the ability to utilize these relationships with other agencies effectively in dealing with foreign business communities. Such knowledge is not essential for Domestic Trade. They have general rather than local reference, so there is no need for further breakdown by geographic area. The titles for the two specializations are International Trade Specialist and Trade Specialist. The title for all positions at the GS-5 and GS-7 levels is Trade Assistant.
Some positions in the Trade Specialist Series may be concerned with a commodity market, domestic and/or international. Generally, they involve a broad range of commodities and services wider, for instance, than that typical of Industrial Specialist positions; therefore, no commodity specializations are provided.
Commissary officers and assistant positions manage, supervise the management of, or advise on the operation of commissaries or commissary departments. These positions primarily require knowledge of commercial retail food merchandising and food store management. The work also requires knowledge of the goals, principles, methods, and techniques of commissary management, including knowledge of Department of Defense commissary policy, equipment and facilities maintenance, security, contracting, pricing, and ordering. Positions in foreign countries may require some knowledge of the customs and mores of the host nation.
Commissaries serve active duty and retired military personnel, reservists, National Guard personnel, authorized dependents, and authorized civilian employees. They are located throughout the continental United States and abroad.
This series includes positions involving work in developing, reviewing, administering, and coordinating programs for direct farmer producer participation in production adjustment, price support, land conservation, and similar programs. The work requires a knowledge of agricultural stabilization, conservation, and related programs; farming customs and practices; crop cultivation; production and marketing methods; and related agricultural activities.
The federal government employs 303 agricultural program specialists. All work for the Department of Agriculture.
This series is appropriate for positions of agricultural program specialists at the national office level, and for positions of program specialists at the State office level responsible for the agricultural stabilization and conservation programs of the Department of Agriculture. This series is also generally appropriate for other related program specialist type positions concerned with agricultural programs having similar operations and objectives and requiring similar qualifications.
This series includes positions involving management, research, analytical, regulatory, or other specialized work concerned with the marketing of one or more agricultural commodities or products. The work requires a practical knowledge of marketing functions and practices, including, for example, a knowledge of or experience with the commodity exchanges and markets, agricultural trade, or the practices and methods involved in various agricultural marketing or agribusiness operations, or a knowledge of the requirements of one or more statutory provisions relating to an agricultural marketing program.
The federal government employs 452 agricultural program specialists. All work for the Department of Agriculture.
Within this setting of a dynamic, private marketing system, the role of the Federal Government is to help keep the marketing of agricultural commodities flowing in an orderly and efficient manner, to promote effective distribution, to eliminate speculation and waste, and to stabilize the marketing of agricultural commodities.
This series includes all positions primarily concerned with collection, analysis and dissemination of current information on available supplies, movement, demand, prices, marketing trends, and other facts relating to the marketing of agricultural products. This work, in its various aspects, requires: (a) knowledge of the methods and practices characteristic of markets in the assigned commodity area; (b) ability to establish and maintain sound working relationships with the industry; and (c) knowledge of the physical characteristics, production factors, and quality grading or inspection criteria of the assigned group of commodities.
The federal government employs 147 agricultural program specialists. All work for the Department of Agriculture.
In any reporting position, the basic job of the market reporter is the same: (a) to secure current information from the members of the trade, often while the actual trading is going on, with respect to the basic activities of his assigned portion of the market, including such factors as supply, demand, prices, movements, trends, significant individual transactions, etc.; (b) to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of each information source and to analyze each item of information gathered so as to arrive at a true picture of the actual market situation as of the moment; and (c) to prepare reports reflecting the activities of the market for distribution to members of the trade and to the general public. In addition to this, the reporter also gathers and reports news from other sources (e.g., weather conditions in producing areas, reports from other markets, changes in producing, handling or processing costs, variations in the quality of commodities traded, actions taken under Governmental programs, etc.) and such information from past reports (e.g., recent receipts, prices last week, a year ago, etc.) as has either demonstrably influenced current marketing activities, or will aid the reader of the report to understand most fully the nature and significance of the market situation reported.
Since this basic core of reporting duties is the same for all commodity markets, the primary grade-determining element in any individual position within any representative market is the proportion of the total activities of that representative market for which the reporter is responsible. To put it in other terms, the bigger or more difficult the part of a representative market that the reporter has to cover, the more difficult his job.
Positions in this series are divided into specializations and are titled according to the type of commodity and market with which the positions are concerned. For example, all positions concerned with reporting trading activities in cotton markets are placed in the "Cotton" specialization and are titled "Cotton Market Reporter."
The industrial specialist require a practical knowledge of the nature and operations of an industry or industries, and the materials, facilities and methods employed by the industry or industries in producing commodities. These positions involve the administration, supervision or performance of one or more of the following functions: (1) developing and carrying out plans for the expansion, conversion, integration or utilization of industrial production facilities, either to meet mobilization or strategic requirements or to strengthen the industrial economy; (2) furnishing technical information, assistance, and advice concerning facilities, machinery, methods, materials and standards for industrial production (which may include exploration, extraction, refining, manufacturing and processing operations); (3) developing and/or administering provisions or regulations covering such matters as materials allocation, tariffs, export-import control, etc.; (4) conducting surveys of industrial plants to evaluate capacity and potential for production of specific commodities; (5) planning, evaluating, and maintaining technical surveillance over Government production operations, either in contractor plants or in Government-operated plants; or (6) performing related functions which require essentially similar knowledge as the functions listed above.
The federal government employs 1,420 procurement industrial specialists of which 36 work overseas. The Department of Defense is the largest employer with 737 followed by the Department of Navy with 301 and the Department of the Air Force with 106. A few cabinet level agencies and large independent agencies employ industrial specialists.
The industries with which positions in the Industrial Specialist Series are concerned are those of a manufacturing nature, or those having extensive mechanical production operations. The mechanical production and processing activities in agriculture, forestry, fisheries, mining, and construction are included. Positions in the Industrial Specialist Series are found in agency programs (1) that render services to, or exercise a form of regulatory control over industry, and (2) that are concerned with production activities in connection with procurement programs, whether in Government-operated plants or contractor's plants. Industrial specialist positions in both of these types of agency programs require basically similar knowledge. For example, evaluation of the capability of a particular industrial plant to produce certain commodities calls for consideration of essentially the same facts or factors, whether the result of the evaluation is the assignment of a Government procurement contract, or the determination of the technical and financial assistance which should be given under the provisions of the Small Business Act. In either case, the evaluation would cover the suitability of plant engineering and production skills, raw material resources, and the like. In the same manner, advice or assistance concerning the development of improved production methods and practices requires application of the same basic knowledge of production operations, whether the methods are to be applied by private industry or by Government production activities. (At the entrance levels, positions in this series require the ability and capacity to acquire the substantive knowledge pertaining to industry operations, rather than the possession of such knowledge.)
Production controllers are involved in the supervision or performance of planning, estimating, scheduling, and expediting the use of labor, machines, and materials in specific manufacturing or remanufacturing operations that employ mechanical or automated production systems and methods in the fabrication, rebuilding, overhaul, refurbishing, or repair of any type of Government-owned, controlled, or operated equipment, systems, facilities, and supplies. Some positions are involved in the preparation of contract bids that include the preproduction analysis of specific proposed work packages to determine workload capacity, labor, material, services, and machine requirements, etc., to arrive at the most competitive bid. These positions are also covered by this series as they perform the same type of work as positions that are responsible for the preproduction planning for any assigned projects, since the source data used and knowledge applied are the same.
The federal government employs 5,619 production controllers of which 74 work overseas. The Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force employ 5,540 civilians followed by the Department of Defense with 21 and the Department of Justice with 19. Veterans Administration with 241. A few cabinet level agencies and large independent agencies employ production controllers.
Production control is the planning of production in advance of actual operations; establishing the exact route of each individual item, part, or assembly; setting the start and completion dates for each important item and assembly, as well as the finished product; determining the specific type of labor and number of hours required for each phase of the operation; and calculating all the materials, services, and the production schedule lead time required. Many positions that are concerned with current or immediate production are responsible for the preparation and release of necessary work packages and job orders, as well as initiating any appropriate follow up action.
Many large industrial organizations are responsible for highly specialized products with a long production cycle and a lengthy preproduction or advance planning phase (that part of production control work that is done many months to a year or more in advance of the actual production operations). One or more of the production controllers may be responsible for the advance planning phase for production of a very difficult product such as a major overhaul of a large and complex ship, while the current or immediate production control phase is performed by other controllers.
In smaller facilities providing less complex products, the controller may be responsible for the work in both phases. Some activities divide a very large and complex production effort into several major production operations, using different controllers for each major operation who manage both the planning phase and the immediate production phase. Due to the close dependence and vital interaction of both preproduction planning and the immediate production operations, more activities are combining these planning functions. In an overall sense, control over most manufacturing, construction, overhaul, or repair operations is exercised by and through a number of departments or offices. The production control office presupposes that other offices (such as those in engineering, accounting, and procurement) will accomplish their respective daily functions as required and provide information to the control process. The controller may often orchestrate an ongoing team effort of planning, scheduling, procurement coordination, and problem resolution across all the organizations as time and changing priorities dictate.
Financial analysts direct or perform analytical and evaluative work requiring a comprehensive knowledge of (1) the theory and principles of finance applicable to the full range of financial operations and transactions involved in the general activities of the various types of business corporate organizations; (2) the financial and management organization, operations, and practices of such corporate organizations; (3) pertinent statutory or regulatory provisions; and (4) related basic economic, accounting, and legal principles.
The federal government employs 1,369 financial analysts of which 9 work overseas. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation is the largest employer with 436 followed by the Department of Health and Human Services with 294 and the Department of the Treasury with 115. All of the cabinet level agencies except for the Department of State, and several large independent agencies employ financial analysts.
Financial work classifiable in this series consists of duties which require a comprehensive knowledge of the financial and business principles, operations, and practices of corporate business organizations as the paramount qualification requirement for performance of the work. Work requiring this knowledge may be concerned directly with the operations of corporate business organizations or it may be concerned with the relationship between such operations and the operations of non-corporate commercial enterprises, corporate non-business (e.g., non-profit hospitals) organizations and non-business non-corporate (e.g., public agencies) organizations.
Work of this kind is performed in connection with various agency programs. These include those concerned with such matters as the administration and enforcement of securities laws; and the provision of capital or credit for the planning and construction of community facilities. Also included are programs for the provision of capital or credit for the establishment of commercial enterprises to promote the economic development of foreign or domestic groups; the provision of capital or credit for small business organizations; the financing and regulation of small business investment companies; and the evaluation of the financial soundness and capability of actual and potential contractors. Some programs involve work in the development of eligibility requirements, operating standards, and other safeguarding measures for insuring savings and loan associations or other financial institutions. Other programs involve the administration and enforcement of laws concerning the financial aspects of welfare, pension, or other employee benefit plans.
Other financial work classifiable in this series includes such duties as the development of new methods of financial analysis or new principles of corporation finance, the development of financial analysis training programs, the conduct of studies or surveys to determine the effectiveness of financial programs, the development and establishment of plans, policies, and procedures to carry out financial programs, and other similar duties.
Use the Group Coverage Qualification Standard for Administrative and Management Positions for this series in conjunction with the Individual Occupational Requirements described below.
The federal government employs 34 insurance examiners. All work for the Department of Homeland Security.
Education Undergraduate and Graduate Education: Major study -- agronomy, soil sciences, agricultural economics, agricultural management, horticulture, or other closely related fields of agriculture that included or was supplemented by at least 24 semester hours of agriculture-related course work.
General Experience (for GS-5 positions): Experience that provided a knowledge of crops, soils, topography, pesticides, herbicides, farming practices and techniques, farm management, agricultural marketing practices, and other agriculture-related principles, methods, and practices.
Specialized Experience (for positions above GS-5): Experience that demonstrated a thorough understanding of the agricultural concepts, principles, and practices underlying crop insurance underwriting and how the principles are applied in farm production and farm management. Examples of qualifying specialized experience include:
Loan specialist and assistants direct or perform analytical and evaluative work which requires knowledge of (1) credit risk factors and lending principles involved in loans of specialized types granted, insured, or guaranteed by the Federal Government; (2) financial structures and practices of business organizations concerned with such loans; and (3) pertinent statutory, regulatory, and administrative provisions.
The federal government employs 4,208 loan specialists and assistants of which 60 work overseas. The Department of Agriculture is the largest employer with 3,081 followed by the Small Business Administration with 487 and the VA with 473. About half of the cabinet level agencies and several large independent agencies employ loan specialist and assistants.
The Government's participation in loan programs serves such purposes as: Encouraging home and farm ownership and improvement; providing assistance to business in obtaining financing to purchase equipment and materials, to expand and modernize operations, or to use as working capital; providing assistance to persons affected by flood, drought, and other forms of distress and disaster; providing assistance to the secondary market for home mortgages; and providing assistance to Indian tribal enterprises and industrial development activities.
The basic objective of these loan programs is to grant loans to eligible borrowers under terms and conditions that will insure minimum risk to the Government. Loan specialists make judgments that the prospective borrower does or does not have the ability to repay the loan; or that a proposed course of action will or will not enable the borrower to repay the loan, or enable the lender or the Government to recover the loan without loss, or with the least amount of loss.
Loan specialist work is performed in connection with any of various kinds of loan programs. The loans involved may be loans granted directly by the Government or loans from private sources insured, guaranteed, or supervised by the Government. This work typically includes such duties as developing and establishing loan policies, regulations, and procedures; examining and approving, or disapproving, loan applications, applications for the insurance or guarantee of loans or for the reamortization of loans, applications for the partial release of security or the release of personal liability, and proposals for the substitution of security; reviewing and approving, or disapproving, offers of mortgages for purchase; servicing and adjusting current and delinquent loan accounts or loans in default; administering tax and insurance accounts; making periodic inspections of security properties; determining the propriety of and carrying out various actions in the acquisition, liquidation, and sale of loans or loan security; advising borrowers, lenders, and others concerned on financial and credit matters; and other duties of a similar nature.
Internal revenue officers administer, supervise, or perform work related to collecting delinquent taxes, surveying for unreported taxes, and securing delinquent returns. The work requires application of a knowledge of (1) general or specialized business practices; (2) pertinent tax laws, regulations, procedures, and precedents; (3) judicial processes, laws of evidence, and the interrelationship between Federal and State laws with respect to collection and assessment processes; and (4) investigative techniques and methods.
Internal Revenue Officers focus on the collection of delinquent taxes and functions directly related to that work. Cases, called taxpayer delinquent accounts (TDA) or taxpayer delinquent investigations (TDI), are assigned to a revenue officer for resolution. Whether assigned to IRS Service Centers or to District Offices, they perform similar functions applying the same knowledge and skills.
Revenue officers have extensive face-to-face personal contacts with taxpayers, attorneys, accountants, and other representatives and spend a major portion of their time in field work. Office time is spent ordering cases, conducting preliminary analyses of cases, scheduling appointments, consulting with group managers, preparing administrative reports, and assembling case files for closure.
The work requires analytical skills and judgment to make a range of choices such as: how to advise the taxpayer on liquidating tax liabilities; whether to seize and sell; whether to accept a part-payment agreement; whether to recommend 100-percent penalty assessment; whether to accept an offer in compromise, partial lien discharge, or subordination; or whether to initiate suit recommendations.
Realty specialists and officers perform, advise on, plan, or direct one or more of the following functions: (1) acquisition of real property; (2) management of real property in (a) the administration of Federally owned, Indian-owned, leased, or consigned space or property, or (b) preparation for disposal; or (3) disposal of real property. The work requires a knowledge of real estate laws, principles, practices, and markets.
The federal government employs 3,124 loan specialists and assistants of which 42 work overseas. The Department of the Army is the largest employer with 773 followed by the Department of Interior with 725 and the GSA with 567. All of the cabinet level agencies and a number of large independent agencies employ realty specialist and realty officers.
This series covers positions in field and headquarters level offices that are responsible for either acquiring, managing, and/or disposing of real property for use in achieving their own agency mission(s), those of other agencies, both within and outside of the United States, or on behalf of various North American Indian tribes. It also covers positions responsible for managing and disposing of real property acquired by the Federal Government under various loan insurance programs.
Realty specialists acquire, manage, and dispose of property in conjunction with public lands programs and/or water projects; or for use as general office, special purpose (e.g., lab, military, depot storage, or factory), or general purpose storage space. They also dispose of property acquired when borrowers default on Federally insured loans or obtained as a result of litigation or police action, and make surplus real property available for certain public benefit uses including shelter for the homeless.
Realty specialists may advise and guide State and local governments, including jurisdictions subject to Federal oversight, and/or other Federal agencies on various aspects of realty work; such as the acquisition, use, or disposal of property; the displacement and relocation of property owners, business operations, and/or tenants; highway beautification and the passage of State legislation and their interaction with Federal laws and regulations.
Some realty specialists perform work related to long- and short-range planning. This includes, for example, identifying long-range property needs, analyzing alternative strategies for meeting those needs, and recommending appropriate methods of acquisition. It may also include developing comprehensive plans for major acquisitions for client agencies, insuring that sufficient right-of-way is being acquired for projects, determining administrative costs associated with acquisitions, and/or insuring that budget allocations are available when needed and time schedules are set up to integrate the various work phases of projects.
Housing managers and assistants assist in managing one or more family housing projects, billeting facilities, or other accommodations such as transient or permanent individual and family living quarters, dormitory facilities and restricted occupancy buildings including adjacent service facilities and surrounding grounds; and/or (2) to administer, supervise, or perform work involved in the evaluation of housing management programs, the development of administrative procedures, and the provision of technical assistance to onsite housing management. Positions in this occupation require a variety of housing management and administrative knowledge and related practical skills and abilities in such housing activities as: operations and maintenance, procurement of services, cost management and financial planning, assignments and utilization, occupancy changes and periodic inspections, scheduled and special requirement surveys, new construction and improvements, control of furnishings and equipment, master planning, and management-tenant relations. While some positions may involve administrative or indirect supervision of trade or craft work, an intensive practical knowledge of skilled trade and craft work techniques and processes is not required.
The federal government employs 1,303 housing managers and assistants of which 195 work overseas. The Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force employ 1,196 civilians followed by the Department of Homeland Security with 65 and the Department of Justice with 23. A few other cabinet level agencies employ housing managers and assistants.
Housing management work is comprised of: (1) direct management of housing projects and facilities, and (2) housing management program evaluation and administration. All positions in this series require similar basic knowledge, skills and abilities (knowledge of housing management methods, practices, and operating techniques related to family-type housing, temporary quarters, and other accommodations; knowledge of building construction and maintenance requirements sufficient to provide a basis for sound management practices; knowledge of agency or departmental housing program, cost management, and financial planning requirements; and ability to meet successfully with tenants, civic organizations, and public or private agency officials). These knowledge, skills and abilities are directly related to the work processes that comprise housing management operations and increase proportionately as the difficulty and responsibility of positions increase.
This series covers positions that involve management of buildings and other facilities to provide organizations with appropriate office space and essential building services. Employees in this series typically perform one or more of the following functions: (1) applying business knowledge to directly manage, or assist in managing, the operation of one or more buildings and the surrounding property; (2) directing comprehensive building management programs; or (3) performing staff level work in the study of building management methods and the development of standard building management practices.
The federal government employs 1,270 building managers and assistants. The Government Service Administration (GSA) employs 910, the DOD 53, and the Department of the Army employs 49 civilians. A few work for other agencies employs small numbers of this group.
This series covers building managers, building management specialists, and building management staff officials. Building management specialists may specialize, in a line or staff position, in one or more program areas such as energy efficiency, custodial management, or mechanical maintenance, or in analysis of building management programs.
Building managers direct a variety of service functions to provide occupants of both Federal Government buildings and commercially leased space with adequate facilities in which to conduct agency business. In providing these services, they manage building operations, maintenance, repair, and alteration programs, and advise agency representatives on optimal use of the building's facilities.
Along with these major functions they direct a variety of other program areas which include conserving energy; eliminating environmental hazards; promoting the use of Federal facilities by the community; reviewing plans and specifications for new structures; evaluating and reporting on new material, equipment, methods, and prototype facilities; overseeing the provision of food service and concessions; and providing directory assistance to visitors.
Building managers operate office buildings and a variety of special purpose facilities, including courthouses, warehouses, laboratories, clinics, depots, libraries, border stations, and data processing installations. Along with the actual buildings, they also manage the grounds and provide snow removal and parking lot maintenance. In managing commercially owned buildings used by Federal agencies, they coordinate and evaluate operational activities to assure that occupants receive the level and kind of building services specified in lease agreements.